Iran, Iraq and Libya – all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Opec) – and conflict-torn states such as Yemen and South Sudan have not ratified the agreement. Paris Agreement, in the middle of the Paris Agreement on climate change, also known as the Paris Climate Agreement or COP21, an international treaty named after the city of Paris, France, which adopted it in December 2015, which aimed to reduce emissions of gases contributing to global warming. The Paris agreement aimed to improve and replace the Kyoto Protocol, a previous international agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions. It came into force on 4 November 2016 and was signed by 194 countries and ratified by 188 in November 2020. There are also serious legal and constitutional issues. Foreign leaders in Europe, Asia and around the world should have no more to say about the U.S. economy than our own citizens and their elected representatives. That is why our withdrawal from the agreement is a reaffirmation of American sovereignty. (Applause) Our constitution is unique among all the nations of the world, and it is my supreme commitment and the greatest honor to protect them. And I will. An informal deadline until 1 October set the deadline for a UN INDC summary.
About 148 parties made the cut. Another 48 countries responsible for 10% of global emissions have not yet submitted their INDCs. The Kyoto Protocol, a pioneering environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time nations have agreed on country-by-country emission reduction targets. The protocol, which only came into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for industrialized countries, based on the fact that they are responsible for most of the world`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. Bush argued that the agreement would hurt the U.S. economy because developing countries such as China and India would not be included. In the absence of the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty was limited, as its objectives covered only a small fraction of total global emissions. The Paris Agreement has an “upward” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top down”, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.
 Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – in the absence of legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is seen as an “executive agreement, not a treaty.” Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty was approved by the Senate, this new agreement does not require further legislation from Congress for it to enter into force.  You have promised to put America first in everything you do, and you have done it in different ways, from trade to national security, through the protection of our borders, to the rights of Washington, D.C. And today, you put America first in terms of international agreements and the environment. The objective of the agreement is to reduce the global warming described in Article 2 and to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC: In short, the agreement does not eliminate coal-related jobs, it only transfers those jobs from the United States and the United States and sends them abroad.